What is an inflammation of sinus cavity?
The inflammation of various sinus cavities is a medical condition which is known as sinusitis. There are multiple reasons like allergic problems, infections, or may be autoimmune disorders associated with inflammation of sinus cavities. The most harmful and widely happening sinusitis is because of infections. The infections may be due to bacteria or virus but in most of the time it is caused by virus.
Classification of sinusitis:
Sinusitis can be classified in two types; first is acute sinusitis and second is chronic sinusitis. Acute sinusitis is mostly result of bacterial, viral and some time fungal infections. The common bacterial infections are Streptococcus pneumoniae, H. influenza, Staphylococcus aureus, anaerobic bacteria, and gram negative bacteria. H. influenza is mostly causative organism of bacterial acute sinusitis. Bacterial sinusitis is more persistent than viral. Fungal infections are also seen for acute time periods but mostly in immune deficient patients like diabetes and AIDS. The duration of acute sinusitis may vary between several days to four weeks. Chronic sinusitis is a long-term and recurring inflammation of sinus cavity. Chronic sinusitis duration usually lengthens from three months to one year and sometimes even more. It may be a combination of various factors like symptoms of different diseases where sinus is involved. The typical symptoms of chronic sinusitis include headache, greenish nasal discharge, swelling in the region of nose and eyes. Headache usually worsens while bending or lying down. Chronic sinusitis may leads to asthma in some cases.
Signs and symptoms of sinus cavity inflammation:
Patients with sinus inflammation usually have coughing, headache, malaise, mild fever, greenish nasal discharge, pain or swelling on face or around the eyes, sneezing, and fatigue. Symptoms can also be similar to a toothache in the upper area of jaw. This usually leads to a nasal congestion, disturbance in smell sensations, stuffy nose and breathing problems.
Causes of sinus cavity inflammation:
There is a huge list of causes that leads to sinusitis. The most common causes are allergic rhinitis, allergies to various things, infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal), asthma, common cold, immune deficiency diseases, nasal polyps, infected tooth socket, various nasal abnormalities, sinus surgery, and cranial surgery.
Diagnosis of inflamed sinus cavity:
Duration based diagnosis: When the inflammation is an acute and based on virus and bacteria, it is diagnosed as viral infection if the duration extends up to 10 days. If this duration prolongs from 10 days and ends up to 30 days it is diagnosed as bacterial sinusitis. Chronic sinusitis is usually prolongs from three months to one year. It is commonly diagnosed with CT scan, nasal endoscopy, and cultures. Allergic fungal sinusitis is diagnosed by based on asthma and nasal polyps as medical history of patient. Biopsy is also performed for its diagnosis. Sinusoscopy is also performed however, it is done rarely.
Treatment of sinus cavity inflammation:
Sinus cavity inflammation usually treated with antibiotics, NSAIDS, steroids, surgeries and other home remedies. Other normal approaches are also used to treat sinusitis like nasal decongestants, however these should not use for long duration because of risks of rebound sinusitis. The antibiotics are usually used when symptoms of sinusitis prolongs above ten days because of bacterial infections. The first line antibiotic treatment is an amoxicillin which is broad spectrum antibiotics. Other antibiotics used are augmentin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, and fluoroquinolones. Steroids, more specifically corticosteroids are used in sinusitis treatment. It includes flusinolide, Nu-flusinolide, and other in combinations with antibiotics. The surgery is the most appropriate and recommended method of treatment of sinusitis. Various surgeries done in sinusitis include functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS), balloon sinuplasty, and Caldwell-Luc surgery.
Some commonly used home remedies include ginger, garlic, fenugreek seeds, mustard seeds, cumin seeds, cinnamon, and some vitamin C rich fruits like oranges.